Massive fires, severe heat waves, even the smoky fog that built into much of Minnesota and surrounding areas recently; all raise awareness of our warming climate with many people. It is absolutely correct to make this association, although it is not quite precise to jump to the idea that to witness these things is to witness climate change. In recent years, there have also been very cold winters, cool summers and months of very dull weather. And to be sure, severe heat waves have happened in our distant past.

Weather is so naturally variable that it is extremely difficult to observe the climate as it changes. Statements that begin with, "Well, I can't remember weather like this," are more a reflection of memory than of the changing climate. Climate change is really best observed through measured change over time, not by anecdotal evidence.

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