You gotta love a comet. Wait. Let me rephrase. You gotta be crazy to love a comet. Their unpredictability can drive us nuts. We expect them to brighten as predicted but then they’ll stall or even bust apart and dissipate. But it’s that very unreliability that gives them their charm and affirms that change in the heavens is as certain as change on Earth. Not only that, but new comets can come out of nowhere — exactly what happened with the exciting discovery of Comet SWAN (C/2020 F8). Sit tight. We’ll touch on this new object in just a moment.

We’ll begin with Comet ATLAS, discovered last December. It was predicted to brighten to naked-eye visibility in May. Some astronomers cautioned at the time that it might also break into pieces and fade away as it approached the sun. Guess what happened? Earlier this month, it began to shed fragments from its icy nucleus. What had been a spectacular brightening trend rapidly reversed, and ATLAS began to fade. The fragments drifted apart, spewing dust and ice, to create a train of fuzzy nuggets inside the comet’s head.

When the center does not hold! Over the past couple weeks, several fragments have broken away from the main comet nucleus — likely the bright point at the far right in each frame. The comet has also become noticeably elongated in telescopes. (Credit: Gianluca Masi and Nick Haigh, lower left)
When the center does not hold! Over the past couple weeks, several fragments have broken away from the main comet nucleus — likely the bright point at the far right in each frame. The comet has also become noticeably elongated in telescopes. (Credit: Gianluca Masi and Nick Haigh, lower left)

Although the comet is still visible in 6-inch and larger telescope as it wriggles across the northern sky, it’s faded from magnitude 8 to 9.5. Instead of getting brighter, ATLAS appears to be headed toward oblivion. While part or parts of the comet may survive its May 31 perihelion (closest approach to the sun), we’ll probably have to eat our hopes of seeing it with the naked eye or binoculars. In the past week, I’ve examined it regularly in my 15-inch telescope. It looks like a soft, misty patch of haze with a stretched-out core. At 400x, I see hints of the fuzzy fragments.

If you want to track down Comet ATLAS yourself, use a map from Sky & Telescope. Warning — it’s not particularly bright. Likewise, the comet is tracking across the large, dim constellation Camelopardalis the giraffe, which has no bright stars to serve as easy guides. Still, with determination and the right instrument, you’ll find it. Look soon though!

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On April 13, 2020, Comet SWAN (C/2020 F8) sported a bright, dense coma (the green cloud) and short, spiky tail. (Credit: Rolando Ligustri)
On April 13, 2020, Comet SWAN (C/2020 F8) sported a bright, dense coma (the green cloud) and short, spiky tail. (Credit: Rolando Ligustri)

Just as ATLAS is dissipating, another comet has come to the rescue. Named SWAN (C/2020 F8), after a specialized camera on the orbiting Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), it was discovered earlier this month by Australian amateur Michael Mattiazzo. He spotted it while browsing through SOHO images posted online. The comet is already 8th magnitude and viewable in binoculars but only for southern hemisphere observers at the moment. Come early May, it will ease into the dawn sky in the constellation Pisces then move rapidly eastward through Triangulum and Perseus as it brightens from about magnitude 6 (naked-eye limit) to 3.5!

This map shows the path of Comet SWAN nightly (7 p.m. CDT) through May, when it will shine brightest and become visible in the northern hemisphere. Stars are shown to magnitude 6.5. (SkyMap software)
This map shows the path of Comet SWAN nightly (7 p.m. CDT) through May, when it will shine brightest and become visible in the northern hemisphere. Stars are shown to magnitude 6.5. (SkyMap software)

Of course, there are caveats. Throughout its run, SWAN will never rise very high before the light of dawn interferes. That means you’ll have to be out at the right time to see it at its best … and carry along a pair of binoculars for assistance. I’ll help with updated maps, news and occasional humorous anecdotes in the weeks ahead. Should the comet live up to predictions, it will be dimly visible at dawn without optical aid and a fine sight in binoculars.

Comet PanSTARRS wags a short tail on April 12, 2020. (Credit: Sean Walker / MDW Sky Survey)
Comet PanSTARRS wags a short tail on April 12, 2020. (Credit: Sean Walker / MDW Sky Survey)

Meanwhile, Comet PanSTARRS (C/2017 T2) has been plugging across the northern sky for weeks. Ugh! It’s also in Camelopardalis — thankfully not for long. The comet inches closer to the bucket of the Big Dipper each night which will make finding it much easier.

Use this map to find Comet PanSTARRS through June 24, 2020, as it travels toward the Big Dipper. Positions are marked every 5 days at 7 p.m. CDT (0h UT). The best viewing time is early evening. (SkyMap software)
Use this map to find Comet PanSTARRS through June 24, 2020, as it travels toward the Big Dipper. Positions are marked every 5 days at 7 p.m. CDT (0h UT). The best viewing time is early evening. (SkyMap software)

From a dark sky, PanSTARRS is visible as a faint, fuzzy blob in 10×50 binoculars. Through a 6-inch scope, you’ll see a round, misty glow with a brighter center and might even glimpse the central pinpoint of light called the false nucleus (the real one is very tiny and obscured by dust). Larger telescopes reveal a short, brush-like tail pointing southeast.

PanSTARRS will remain around magnitude 8 through the remainder of April and May, presenting many opportunities for you to grab a look. With all the exciting news about comets, I don’t miss a clear night anymore. Sometimes nature just piles it on!

"Astro" Bob King is a freelance writer for the News Tribune. Read more of his work at astrobob.areavoices.com.