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Pastoret Terrace timeline

Oliver Traphagen designed the six townhouses that made up Pastoret Terrace in the Romanesque Revival style of architecture, which would essentially become his "trademark look" for buildings in Duluth. (Photo from Duluth Public Library)

1886: Dry-goods store owner Michael Pastoret commissions Oliver Traphagen to design an upscale, six-unit Romanesque Revival townhouse at 129-131 E. First St., featuring brownstone-trimmed windows, wrought-iron roof details and a round corner tower with a tall finial.

1887: Pastoret advertises the townhouses as "costly" to appeal to wealthy professionals. Duluth is experiencing a building boom, and downtown and nearby Ashtabula Heights are highly desirable locations for the rich.

1890s-1910: Developers of Hunters Park, the "East End" (east of about 20th Avenue East), and the Congdon neighborhood recruit Duluth's elite to build homes in their developments, often including free parcels of land.

Around 1920: Most of Duluth's wealthy have relocated from downtown; their Victorian mansions and townhouses are converted into boarding houses and apartment buildings.

1924: New owners of Pastoret Terrace extend the first floor on both First Street and Second Avenue East, add a restaurant, and remove the tower roof.

1933: Prohibition ends, and the restaurant becomes a tavern. Its six townhouses are divided into many apartments.

1960: The original six townhouses are now 40 apartments; tenants share bathrooms. The tavern becomes the Kozy Bar.

1960s-1970s: Nearly every building in Duluth's Bowery is demolished for the Gateway Renewal Project, displacing its socially marginalized inhabitants. With extremely low rents and a bar downstairs, Pastoret Terrace becomes a magnet for many former Bowery residents. The entire building becomes known as The Kozy.

1970-2009: An overwhelming number of Duluth's police calls are made in response to incidents at or near the Kozy. Most of the building's tenants suffer from alcoholism, drug abuse and mental illness; all have little or no income. By 2005, the Kozy has 50 units, ranging in rent from $160 to $460 a month.

2009: The building is purchased by Dr. Eric Ringsred, once a lauded leader of local preservation efforts but criticized more recently as a neglectful building owner. Rinsgred plans to make the Kozy a positive gathering space for his tenants and bar patrons.

2010: On Nov. 15 a fire starts in Unit 32. According to Ringsred, "There was a lot of mischief in that room with drugs." The flames spread quickly, but no one is injured. Outside of liability, Rinsgred had no insurance for the building.

March 2012: Ringsred files a federal lawsuit accusing the city of unfairly impeding his efforts to resurrect the building. By June 6, Ringsred drops the lawsuit. The building sits boarded up and unheated.

December 2012: Ringsred and former City Planner Mike Conlan form Pastoret LLC and plan to rebuild Pastoret Terrace to its original exterior condition while providing low-income housing in the interior. The bar is not included in plans. Costs are projected at $8.7 million.

Timeline compiled by Tony Dierckins, publisher of Zenith City Online ( and the author and publisher of numerous books that celebrate Duluth history, including "Lost Duluth," a 2013 Minnesota Book Award finalist.